## How to: Find closest objects in ArcGIS with Python

As part of my DunesGIS project I had a need to calculate *‘closeness statistics’* for objects in ArcGIS. By *‘closeness statistics’* I mean statistics giving information about how close the objects are to each other. I needed to do this to calculate how dune patterns change over time.

The code below takes a shapefile as input, and then calculates the closest other object to each object. It then returns the mean closeness and standard deviation of all objects.

```
def CalculateCloseness(Filename):
# Calculate the distance from each shape (point, line, polygon)
# to all of the others
gp.GenerateNearTable(Filename, Filename, "NearTable", \
"", "LOCATION", "ANGLE", "ALL")
# Create a view of the table so that we can run queries on it below
gp.MakeTableView("NearTable", "tbl", "NEAR_DIST > 0")
# Search for all of the distances which are > 175 and < 185 degrees
# that is, basically horizontally
rows = gp.SearchCursor("tbl", "NEAR_ANGLE >= 175 AND NEAR_ANGLE <= 185", "", "")
# Get the first row
row = rows.Next()
# Create a NumPy array to hold the results
shortest = numpy.zeros(500)
# For each row
while row:
# Get the previous shortest distance from the array
prev_value = shortest[row.IN_FID]
# If the previous value is 0 then this is the first distance
# we've found so set it to that
if (prev_value == 0):
shortest[row.IN_FID] = row.NEAR_DIST
continue
# Otherwise if this is a shorter one then use it
elif (row.NEAR_DIST < prev_value):
shortest[row.IN_FID] = row.NEAR_DIST
# Move to the next row
row = rows.Next()
# Select all non-zero elements so the zero's don't skew the mean
non_z_indices = numpy.where(shortest)
# Calculate mean and stdev
mean_closeness = numpy.mean(shortest[non_z_indices])
std_closeness = numpy.std(shortest[non_z_indices])
# Return results
return [mean_closeness, std_closeness]
```

This script is (well, will shortly) be included inĀ RTWTools for ArcGIS, where it is integrated into an ArcGIS Toolbox.

*If you found this post useful, please consider buying me a coffee.*

This post originally appeared on Robin's Blog.

**Categorised as:** Academic, GIS, Python

Thank you very much for such information. It’s a great help

hello I have a question… I can’t run the script in ArcGIS, please could you tell how..? or what can I load this script in a toolbox