Robin's Blog

Karabiner Elements and Goku for custom keyboard shortcuts in MacOS

I came across Karabiner Elements a number of years ago when trying to find a way to get easy access to the # symbol on my MacBook Pro keyboard. I’m not sure why, but it seems that using a UK keyboard layout on a MBP means that to get # you have to press some weird two-key combination – and I could never remember it. As I program in Python, being able to easily use # is fairly important!

So, I managed to get this set up in Karabiner Elements – but a couple of years ago I came across a better way to configure it, which enabled me to easily create a load of extra keyboard shortcuts.

A lot of this post is really just reminding me how I did this – but hopefully it’ll be useful to other people.

The key tool here is Goku which lets you write simple short configuration files which are translated into a complicated Karabiner Elements configuration file.

To get going, install Karabiner Elements and then follow these instructions to install Goku, and set up Karabiner Elements properly.

Then you’ll need to write your Goku configuration file, which you should place in ~/.config/karabiner.edn. Mine is below, and I’ll try and take you through it (I am not an expert at Goku configuration though!).

{:layers {:caps_lock-mode {:key :caps_lock}},
 :main [{:des "capskey",
         :rules [:caps_lock-mode
                 [:open_bracket :!!open_bracket]
                 [:close_bracket :!!close_bracket]
                 [:semicolon :!!semicolon]
                 [:quote :!!quote]
                 [:comma :!!comma]
                 [:period :!!period]
                 [:slash :!!slash]
                 [:a :!!a]
                 [:b ["osascript ~/code/applescript/switch_to_chrome.scpt"]]
                 [:c ["osascript ~/code/applescript/open_with_vscode.scpt"]]
                 [:d :!!d]
                 [:e [:x :delete_forward :left_arrow :down_arrow]]
                 [:f :!!f]
                 [:g :!!g]
                 [:h :!!h]
                 [:i :!!i]
                 [:j :!!j]
                 [:k :!!k]
                 [:l :!!l]
                 [:m :!!m]
                 [:n :!!n]
                 [:o :!!o]
                 [:p :!!p]
                 [:q :!!q]
                 [:r :!!r]
                 [:s :!!s]
                 [:t :!!t]
                 [:u :!!u]
                 [:v :!!v]
                 [:w :!!w]
                 [:x :!!x]
                 [:y :!!y]
                 [:z :!!z]
                 [:1 :!!1]
                 [:2 :!!2]
                 [:3 :!!3]
                 [:4 :!!4]
                 [:5 :!!5]
                 [:6 :!!6]
                 [:7 :!!7]
                 [:8 :!!8]
                 [:9 :!!9]
                 [:0 :!!0]]}
                 {:des "top left to hash" :rules [[:non_us_backslash :!O3]]}
                 {:des "wireless presenter" :rules [[:dictation :!!P]]}]}

Let’s start from the bottom: the penultimate rule (starting with :des) remaps the non-US-backslash key (which is the top left key directly below Escape on my MBP keyboard) to the key press Option-3, which is what gets the # symbol on my keyboard (I always have to look that up…).

The final rule is for my Logitech Wireless presenter remote, which connects via a USB dongle and acts as a keyboard. Unfortunately, when pressing the laser pointer button, it sends some sort of key press as well – and that seems to stop videos playing when presenting a Powerpoint presentation. Very inconvenient when you want to use the laser pointer to point out something in a video! So, this rule just remaps that keypress (apparently the ‘dictation’ button) to an unused key combination. In this case, that is !!P which is Cmd-Ctrl-Option-Shift-P – a key combination which is rather unlikely to already be used…! (There is documentation on what these codes like !! means here).

The rest of the rules set up a Caps Lock mode which means Caps Lock can be used normally if you just tap it by itself, but can also be used as a modifier key to allow it to be used with other keys to trigger shortcuts. This works quite well because Caps Lock is on the ‘home row’ so is easy to press with other keys. Most of these remappings just map Caps Lock plus another key to !!<key> – which, as mentioned above, is Cmd-Ctrl-Option-Shift plus the key. This may not seem very useful, but these you can then use this new complicated (but easy to press) key combination as a user-defined shortcut for various things.

For example, I use Alfred, and it has a clipboard history/snippet tool. I’ve assigned that to Caps Lock-T, so pressing that will bring up the tool. This new shortcut won’t conflict with any others (like Ctrl-T or Cmd-T) because nothing by default uses all the modifiers at once.

Another shortcut I use often is Caps Lock-Y to add the selected files to Yoink – this is just configured in the standard Mac Keyboard Shortcuts settings, as Yoink adds a configurable option there under the Finder category.

Most of the rules just map a key to !!<key> but a few do other things. You can run command-line tools directly from Goku/Karabiner Elements, so a Caps Lock-B is remapped to run a small AppleScript that switches to Chrome, and Caps Lock-C is remapped to a small AppleScript that opens the selected file in VS Code. Finally, Caps Lock-E is remapped to a little macro that types x and then deletes the character in front of the cursor, moves left and moves down. This was a useful shortcut for filling in long lists of Github-Flavoured Markdown todo lists, which were often used for PR checklists in a previous job.

So, that’s how I use Goku and Karabiner Elements to get useful keyboard shortcuts – I hope this has been helpful. Just remember that once you’ve edited your karabiner.edn file, you need to either run goku or have it already running as a service – otherwise you’ll wonder why your modifications didn’t work.

Note: I’m trying to get back into blogging, after a very busy time at work in the last couple of years meaning that I haven’t had much time. Hopefully this will be the first of some more regular posts.


Categorised as: Computing, OSX


One Comment

  1. […] set a keyboard shortcut that looks very complex to press, but is actually easy when using my Goku configuration to get Caps Lock working as a modifier […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *